A 2 year U.S. EPA study compared Ferrate, UV, and low cost chlorine processes.
Ferrate was found to be arguably the best solution.
It concluded that the use of Ferrate technology decreased:
– Lifecycle costs by 18%
– Global warming by 7%
– Energy demand by 8%
– Ozone depletion by 15%
– Metals depletion by 15%
– Human Health non-cancer by 36%
– Human Health Cancer effects by 11%
– Eco toxicity by 12%
– Gaseous chlorine by 75%
Overall results summary:
“Utilization of ferrate results in environmental human health and cost benefits for combined use in the pre-disinfection and primary disinfection stage since ferrate acts as both a coagulant and disinfectant and only small doses are required for treatment….”