A 2 year U.S. EPA study compared Ferrate, UV, and low cost chlorine processes.

Ferrate was found to be arguably the best solution.

It concluded that the use of Ferrate technology decreased:

– Lifecycle costs by 18%

– Global warming by 7%

– Energy demand by 8%

– Ozone depletion by 15%

– Metals depletion by 15%

– Human Health non-cancer by 36%

– Human Health Cancer effects by 11%

– Eco toxicity by 12%

– Gaseous chlorine by 75%

Overall results summary:

“Utilization of ferrate results in environmental human health and cost benefits for combined use in the pre-disinfection and primary disinfection stage since ferrate acts as both a coagulant and disinfectant and only small doses are required for treatment….”